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Introduction to medical statistics

This material was originally produced to support a course for students taking undergraduate and masters courses in dentistry. It is intended as an introduction to statistics for clinicians; the aims and objectives of the course and a short bibliography are given on the course outline page.

A glossary of some statistical terms is available. Finally, there are a few example exam questions provided for students to practice on.

The fifteen units of the course

  1. Sampling a population
  2. Types of data
  3. Describing data: summary statistics and graphical techniques
  4. Estimation and confidence intervals
  5. Statistical inference: testing hypotheses and interpreting P values
  6. Contingency tables: odds ratios and the χ2 test
  7. Non-parametric tests
  8. Multiple comparisons
  9. Correlation and regression
  10. Diagnostic consistency: how do we measure agreement?
  11. Sample size calculations
  12. Bias and confounding
  13. Repeated measures
  14. Causation
  15. Critical appraisal of published research